La Terapia Razionale Emotiva Comportamentale (REBT) può rappresentare un valido supporto, insieme ad azioni di carattere più pratico, per i ragazzi vittime di bullismo, attraverso un lavoro finalizzato a modificare quelli che la REBT chiama pensieri disfunzionali, i quali hanno la caratteristica di essere talmente radicati, rigidi e automatici che non permettono di interpretare la realtà in modo oggettivo.
La depressione è un’emozione con significato e funzione adattiva (sia nel’uomo che nell’animale). Lutti, cambiamenti ed eventi stressanti sono stimoli che nell’uomo possono determinare una reazione depressiva e che inizialmente va considerata come protettiva.
Suicide in adolescence: unheard pains! The tragedy of the Frisi high school
Given the latest news, the figure of the School Psychologist seems increasingly necessary to intervene preventively on suffering
Monza experienced a tragedy, in particular the Frisi high school: two boys, respectively 19 and 18 years old, took their lives fifteen days after each other. According to police investigations, no connection emerges between the two tragedies that occurred.
Il suicido rappresenta oggi una delle prime cause di mortalità nella fascia d’età compresa tra i 15 ed i 19 anni, rappresentando una priorità assoluta in termini di prevenzione. L’incidenza intercetta una differenza di genere: i giovani maschi si suicidano più spesso rispetto alle giovani donne. Queste ultime compiono però numerosi tentativi di suicidio e spesso sviluppano una storia clinica di depressione.
L’azione del suicidio è accompagnata nel genere maschile anche dall’abuso di sostanze, quali alcool e droghe, che spesso contribuiscono all’alterazione del comportamento (aggressività e impulsività) determinando l’esito fatale; a differenza del genere femminile in cui lo sviluppo di una storia clinica depressiva induce alla richiesta d’aiuto e dunque alla prevenzione dell’atto suicidario.
It is useful for the State to offer valid spaces for our young people to think about themselves even in times of difficulty, it is useful for the State to work for the well-being of our children when they are still alive and not just to mourn with them. that "remain". Not taking preventive measures in suitable places, such as school, where children spend about 12 years of their life and about 1400 hours a year means leaving difficulties and pains completely unheard.
Risk factors and protective factors: the data to build prevention! We have numerous data that allow us to identify which are the risk factors, that is all those variables that tend to be present more frequently in cases of suicide, compared to preventive factors , that is all those variables that indicate which aspects " enhance " to decrease the risk of suicide.
low socio-economic status, poor education and unemployment;
modelli familiari disfunzionali accompagnati da eventi di vita traumatici. I modelli disfunzionali si caratterizzano per la presenza di un alto livello di conflitto intrafamiliare, la presenza di psicopatologia nel genitore, storie di abuso di sostanze o pregressi tentativi di suicidio da parte del/dei genitori;
positive family models: good relationships, source of emotional support for the adolescent;
sviluppo della propria personalità attraverso il “potenziamento” delle abilità sociali, incluse la capacità di chiedere aiuto e la capacità di ascolto dell’altro che sia coetaneo o adulto;
socio-cultural models: integration, relational well-being with school users (class group and teachers), support.
“What depression? he's just listless! "
I like to think that these aspects identified by the clinical literature really serve their concrete use, or to offer spaces for thinking about one's pain or simply one's doubts and uncertainties. In order for this to happen, I believe it is necessary to get out of the search logic of "the culprit", but it is urgent to think of the undoubted responsibilities that legislators have starting from the innovation of a great educational agency: the school. Responsibility that lies in concretely innovating the school according to the needs of our children and the teaching staff, not overloading the latter with the demand for skills that their role does not provide.
The ability to grasp a difficulty in the phase of "problem behavior" even before it becomes full-blown psychopathology today requires the presence of a School Psychologist, whose role must not be limited to the "emergency event" or "post mortem" or even to the workshop foreseen in the “lucky” school, but it must be a right for all children, teachers and families.
Not having a figure in charge of intercepting typical signals can lead to the fatal mistake of responding to symptoms with a personal judgment on them, creating a vicious circle of: not listening, suffering and, ultimately, tragic events. That boy who appears listless to us is sometimes not:
hopelessness (lived of sadness and melancholy, without hope);
anhedonia (lack of interest and boredom);
asthenia (physical fatigue);
arrears (divestment in the world);
transition to self and hetero aggressive act (substance abuse, violent behavior, suicide attempts)
sono sintomi che non hanno bisogno di un giudizio, ma della giusta competenza per essere riconosciuti ed accolti: “Mentre la compassione non nutre l’autostima, l’empatia la favorisce a partire dalla sospensione del giudizio”. I nostri ragazzi ci chiedono strumenti, in alcuni casi aiuto, ed è ora di sospendere i nostri giudizi e agire!
Il suicidio non è un fulmine a ciel sereno: gli studenti suicidi danno alle persone che li circondano sufficienti avvertimenti e margini di intervento (NESMOS)
and it is precisely for these margins of intervention that the legislators are responsible. Italy remains one of the few European countries in which the profession of the School Psychologist is neither recognized nor regulated at an institutional level. Numerous bills have been proposed in this regard which to date have left the country in a stalemate or, better still, in a situation of absence of services for clearly emerging needs.
The non-clinical intervention of the School Psychologist provides for actions to promote well-being at multiple levels:
individual, intended for the single individual who can be any user of the school structure;
relational, intended for the relationship of two individuals or group dynamics;
organizational and community, intended for the proper functioning of the school understood as a complex organization.
The school could become a privileged space for primary intervention, if properly organized, as reported by DORS, according to some specific modalities aimed at promoting mental health with:
inclusion in curricular programs;
the articulation into the key components, namely health promotion, education and prevention, intervention evaluation and post-intervention;
involvement of health professionals who collaborate with teachers and educators;
extension to the community context;
cost - effectiveness evaluation.
It seems clear to me that the cost of the intervention will never be "ineffective", although difficult to find, if the goal is to prevent the death of a teenager.
The use of the term "Anxiety" is now used very often to indicate a strong emotion that involves discomfort, in reality Anxiety is the manifestation of multiple reactions (cognitive, physical and behavioral) towards a stimulus that our mind perceives and records as threatening, dangerous, to which a reaction seems difficult. It is also true that Anxiety is a very important emotion which has had the opportunity to develop through the evolution of man, generating an organ in the brain responsible for it, the amygdala.
Anxiety can cause secondary reactions and behaviors at different levels:
• cognitive: increase in the level of aurosal (state of alert, as the danger seems to intensify), sense of mental emptiness, increase in memories and negative thoughts, feelings of being observed.
• behavioral: hyperactivity, seeking reassurance in others, escape routes, avoiding the situation considered dangerous.
Very often, those who feel this emotion very strongly also establish a vicious circle directly linked to the fear of feeling anxiety, or experiencing the evolution of the anxiety attack (panic attack), this subsequently becomes isolation making the person closed. within its more familiar walls.
The most known disorders related to anxiety are some: specific phobia (spiders, mice, ...), panic disorder, agoraphobia (fear of being in crowded spaces), obsessive-compulsive disorder, social phobia (fear of doing actions in front of others , receiving negative judgments), post-traumatic stress disorder (following a highly stressful and traumatic event that one experienced directly or as a witness), generalized anxiety disorder (constant state of anxiety).
The psychologist helps to manage symptoms, to recognize the emotion of anxiety and to manage it appropriately, therapy related to anxiety disorder, in particular the therapy cognitive-behavioral , is the most applied with very high efficacy indices and percentages, the same scientific community considers it the first choice therapy.
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